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Nyandwaro Gadizo

Bio Statement Fumaric acid is an unsaturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acid: the trans-ethylene dicarboxylic acid. Inhuman organism is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. It also occurs in a series of plants, fungi and lichens. It is, in particular how to cure seborrheic dermatitis, the constituent of the common earth smoke. While fumaric acid can not be resorbed by itself due to a lack of lipophilia, this is possible with the Estem. Fumaric acid has no effect on psoriasis. Fumaric acid esters and here, in particular, dimethyl and monoethyl esters have an antiporotic effect when administered orally. The principal active substance in the antipsoriatic is dimethylfumarate or its metabolite methylhydrogen-fumarate.

activity profile

The healthy epidermis is constantly renewed by increasing keratinocytes upwards and becoming horn cells in about 28 days, which, for example, fall off during washing or rubbing. In the case of psoriasis, two disturbances result in a visible accumulation of dandruff: the increased mitotic rate of the keratinocytes and the transit time shortened to three to five days, with incomplete conversion of the keratinocytes into horn cells. In addition, leukocytes, which enter the epidermis, form small layers of pus beneath the horny layer. There are three main forms of psoriasis:

    Psoriasis vulgaris with sharply delineated, bogig configured red spots with silver white shining scaling
    Psoriasis pustulosa with visible pustules and
    Psoriasis arthropathica with seronegative primary chromatic polyarthritis (especially the small extremity joints). Therapy shows the first antipsorial effect after the fourth to sixth treatment weeks. In a large proportion of the patients the area and severity of the skin infection decline.

mechanism of action

The pharmacological mode of action of fumaric acid esters has not been conclusively clarified. It has been assumed that fumaric acid esters act on the keratinocytes as well as the immune cells infiltrated into the skin lesions, especially the T-lymphocytes.

Fumaric acid esters have a proliferation-inhibiting effect on the keratinocytes, ie they reduce the pathologically increased cell division rate. The most potent antiproliferative effect is dime-thyl fumarate.

In addition, the fumaric acid esters have an immunomodulating effect. The number of leukocytes decreases during treatment and the proportion of lymphocytes decreases. T lymphocytes and their cytokines appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Thus, interleukin-2 and interferon-mamma seborrheic dermatitis natural treatment are greatly increased in the psoriatic lesion. In a common culture of keratinocytes and lymphocytes, fumaric acid esters inhibited interferon-gamma secretion and increased the concentration of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. This applied to cells of psoriatics as well as to cells of healthy control subjects. The shift (modulation) of the T lymphocyte cytokines proceeds from the secretion pattern of the class 1 T lymphocytes (TH1) to the pattern of the class 2 T lymphocytes (TH2), thus to a changed immunological function. Furthermore, fumaric acid esters inhibit the secretion of TGF-alpha (a keratinocytic growth factor) and the inflammatory only in cells of psoriatics.

History of fumaric acid therapy

The therapy with fumaric acid derivatives began with the self-experiment of the chemist and Heilpraktikers Walter Schweckendieck in 1959. Since the 1960s, psoriasists have been applying non-standardized formulations with fumaric acid derivatives. It was not until 1982 that the German doctor, Günther Schäfer, developed a standardized treatment regimen with fumaric acid esters in tablet form. The therapy also included a topical fumaric acid treatment and a diet.

By the mid-1980s, fumaric acid derivatives therapy remained an outsider method that alternately provided enthusiastic reports and negative headlines. In particular, nephrotoxic side effects have been reported with simultaneous oral and topical application of fumaric acid derivatives. It was only during the last few years that the antiperspirant efficacy and safety of the oral administration of the standardized fumaric acid ester preparations were demonstrated. The medicinal products have been authorized since 1994 and are available on the German market.

pharmacokinetics

Animal experiments showed that the active ingredients of this pharmaceutical specialty are almost completely absorbed within half an hour or two hours. Dimethyl fumarate is rapidly hydrolyzed to methyl hydrogen fumarate in the intestine. Also in human serum, dimethyl fumarate is rapidly hydrolyzed to methylhydrogen fumarate shampoo for seborrheic dermatitis. Its maximum concentration in the blood is reached after five to six hours. The mean elimination half-life is about 80 minutes. In the animal experiment excretion was performed mainly by the breath


For more information, contact: The Editor-in-Chief Email: yashon@mu.ac.ke School of Engineering, Moi University Kenya.

The African Journal of Technology
ISSN 1998 – 9350 (Print); ISSN 23135549 (Online)

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